Dr. Roberts’s education is a DDS from Creighton University, PhD in Anatomy University of Utah, and Certification in Orthodontics, University of Connecticut. Appointments are Professor Emeritus of Orthodontics and Adjunct Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Indiana University and Purdue University at Indianapolis, as well as Visiting Professor of Orthodontics at Loma Linda University and St. Louis University. Teaching includes Bone Physiology and Biomechanics at the undergraduate and graduate levels at Loma Linda, St, Louis and Indiana Universities, as well as at the University of Melbourne.

Career distinctions include fellowships in the American and International Colleges of Dentists, as well as certification and recertification by the American Board of Orthodontics (ABO). Dr. Roberts is a Member of the Midwest Component of the Angle Society, and has served as a Director of the Great Lakes Association of Orthodontists (GLAO) and AAO Foundation (AAOF). Publication activities include Editor-in-Chief, International Journal of Orthodontics and Implantology, and Craniofacial Section Editor, Current Osteoporosis Reports.

Dr. Roberts received an honorary medical degree from the University of Lille in France, US Navy Commendation Medal with Combat V, Isaiah Lew Memorial Research Award, Jarabak Award for Orthodontics Education and Research (AAOF), Salzmann Lecture (AAOF), Dale Wade Award for Excellence in Orthodontics (ABO), Albert H. Ketcham Award (ABO), and the B. Holly Broadbent Award (GLAO). He currently serves as a lecturer, mock board examiner, external appraiser, and consultant in research & technology, with emphasis on bone physiology and biomechanics at the clinical level.

Title of Talk

Skeletal Correction of Complex Acquired Malocclusion: Emphasizing the BIO in Biomechanics


More than 90% of patients with skeletal malocclusion are genetically predisposed to an ideal occlusion, so dentofacial discrepancies are usually acquired dysplasias due to aberrant environmental (epigenetic) factors. Many severe malocclusions are physiologic adaptations to abnormal function: ectopic eruption of teeth, habits, abnormal mastication, parafunction, airway compromise, etc. Defining the etiology of the malocclusion is crucial for formulating an efficient treatment plan. Cone-beam computed tomography scans are essential for defining the depth of dentofacial structures. Finite element analysis of the 3D images calculates stress distributions, and simulates the response to applied mechanics for composite biologic structures as materials. Precise digitally positioned brackets decrease finishing adjustments, and optimized multi-force archwires provide a long range of low force. Transient periods of PDL necrosis, 2-10 week lag phases in tooth movement (according to Reitan’s human histology studies) occur for specific teeth every time a progressive archwire is engaged, adjusted, activated or reactivated after a bracket is repositioned. Long range, low force archwires placed in precisely positioned brackets substantially decrease repetitive PDL stress and subsequent necrosis by providing continuous loads to align and finish the dentition without frequent adjustments. Severe skeletal malocclusion is efficiently corrected with low PDL stress by moving entire arches as segments with determinate mechanics that reverse the etiology of the malocclusion. Conservative correction (no extractions or orthognathic surgery), anchored with extra-alveolar (E-A) bone screws, produces desirable outcomes, stability, decreased treatment time, and minimal root resorption.